Inequality in income and wealth is generally large, especially in developing countries. The contrast between the lives of the wealthy and poor can be dramatic, because the income and wealth gaps are associated with gaps in fertility and health. For example, in Uganda, women from the poorest fifth of families have twice the number of children than those from the wealthiest fifth. The wealthiest fifth of the population in Uganda also earns 51 percent of total income, compared to 6 percent earned by the poorest fifth (see data sheet). In Cambodia, children in the poorest fifth of families are three times as likely to die before turning 5 as their counterparts in the wealthiest fifth of families. The wealthiest fifth of Cambodia’s population also earns 44 percent of total income, compared to 8 percent earned by the poorest fifth. These differences in fertility and health outcomes result from a range of factors including gaps in access to various health services, health behaviours and fertility preferences.