Wednesday, 8 December 2021

Special Report: An Open Letter To Mr. Mark Zuckerberg: A Global Call To Act Now On Child And Adolescent Mental Health Science


Dear Mark Zuckerberg,

We are a global coalition of scholars with expertise at the intersection of psychology, online technology, and health. Recently, we have been following news reports about research within your companies on the mental health of child and adolescent users of Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp. Unfortunately, that research is happening behind closed doors and without independent oversight. Therefore, we have only a fragmented picture of the studies your companies are conducting. We do not believe that the methodologies seen so far meet the high scientific standards required to responsibly investigate the mental health of children and adolescents. Although nothing in the leaks suggests that social media causes suicide, self-harm, or mental illness, these are serious research topics. This work, and the tools you are using should not be developed without independent oversight. Sound science must come before firm conclusions are drawn or new tools are launched. You and your organisations have an ethical and moral obligation to align your internal research on children and adolescents with established standards for evidence in mental health science.

With three billion people using Meta platforms for socialising, leisure, and business it is highly plausible that these virtual environments have far-reaching effects on the mental health of younger users — in both positive and negative ways. The fact that you are conducting the research revealed in recent press reports makes it clear you agree that such effects are a real possibility. While we applaud these attempts to understand how your platforms may be impacting young people’s mental health, we believe that the methodologically questionable and secretive ways your teams are conducting this important work is misguided and, in its present state, doomed to fail. Instead of producing reliable scientific insights, the work has — somewhat predictably — been met with intense scepticism from scientists and widespread alarm by lawmakers, journalists, parents, and young people. This is frustrating, because if the right scientific and ethical tools were in place, data collected by Meta could inform how we understand digital technology use and its influence on mental health in unprecedented ways. We write to help you realise this goal and therefore call on you to commit to three concrete actions to build global confidence in your companies as stewards of our data and architects of the (online) worlds that our children will grow up in.

1. Commit to gold-standard transparency on child and adolescent mental health research

The foundation of modern science is best captured by the Royal Society’s motto: Nullius in verba—Latin for ‘take nobody’s word for it’. This principle applies equally to independent scientists and those who work for Meta. Science only works if independent verification of the methods, analysis pipeline, and data for a given research project are public. The studies we have seen in recent weeks fall well short of this basic standard. Nobody can make informed decisions if we only learn about efforts to study mental health by way of incomplete and sometimes misleading media accounts. Therefore, it

is critical you adopt a proactive stance on open mental health science and provide independent scientists a meaningful alternative to having to take your — or indeed anyone’s — word for it.

We call on you to solicit independent and transparent reviews of all past, present, and future research on child and adolescent mental health — including research on young people in the Global North, South, and conflict regions. Investigating mental health requires the highest standards of evidence, including strong methodology reviewed in advance of data collection. Meta must invite and disclose external reviews for all relevant work, before the work is undertaken, and afterwards commission independent reviews of these projects with public-facing reports. These reviews would require the release of reports, slides, research materials, analysis code, and underlying data once adequately de-identified.

Acting on this commitment will fundamentally advance the science of child and adolescent mental health. First, insights into how Meta studies the health of children and adolescents will help independent scientists and stakeholders understand your goals and findings. Second, it will increase the quality of the science on technology effects generally by setting the standard of good research practices for similar industries. Third, it will limit wasting resources on studies that yield questionable insights yet never see the light of day. Finally, it will earn the trust of the public, and set the agenda for other social media companies to follow.

2. Contribute to independent research on child and adolescent mental health around the globe

Large-scale studies in dozens of countries track cohorts of young people through every phase of life, using genetic, social, psychological, nutritional, educational, and economic data to understand human development. As the lines between online and offline blur, these sources of information increasingly fail to capture the full determinants of mental health. Meta’s platforms capture a wide swath of behaviours that are critical to advancing scientific understanding of child and adolescent mental health in general, and effects linked to Meta platforms in particular.

Meta provides a key missing piece to a critical data puzzle: It will be impossible to identify and promote mental health in the 21st century if we cannot study how young people are interacting online. Combining Meta data with large-scale cohort projects will materially advance how we understand implications of the online world for mental health. Meta also has the potential to overcome a related challenge: Nearly all research on the mental health of youth is based on European, North American, or English-speaking populations. Such a narrow focus reinforces existing biases and neglects the mental health of most young people worldwide. Meta must work with researchers from Africa, Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and the Pacific Islands to co-develop infrastructures in these regions for long-term collaborations. Understanding mental health worldwide also requires engaging with researchers worldwide — not just from certain parts of the world.

Meta has a powerful opportunity to be a leader in contributing to these ongoing cohort studies, to collaborate with researchers in the Global south, and to help provide insights into the interplay between our digital lives and mental health. As more of the lives of young people move online, now is a pivotal time for Meta to act. Contributing data to global studies of child and adolescent mental health empowers scientists to conduct true tests of the potential influences of technology on mental health. Meta could lead the way and set a powerful example: Contributing data to ongoing cohort studies will unlock the potential of these efforts to understand risk and resilience factors of the human condition.

3. Establish an independent oversight trust for child and adolescent mental health on Meta platforms

The time is right for a new global trust dedicated to promoting credible, independent, and rigorous oversight on the mental health implications of Meta. Expanding upon the Facebook Oversight Board model, in place of quasi-judicial rulings the trust would conduct independent scientific oversight. Evaluating material risks to mental health, collecting scientific evidence, and vetting tools and solutions would be within its purview. It is critical that this trust will be governed by stakeholders in both developed and developing economies, and those working with refugees and young people in conflict areas. You have demonstrated your commitment to independent governance with your support of the Oversight Board in matters of free expression and legal norms. We call upon you to extend this accountability to the critical matter of youth mental health.

A trust dedicated to child and adolescent mental health science would advance our understanding of the risks and benefits to mental health and promote truly evidence-based solutions for online risks on a world-wide scale. It would partner with large-scale research efforts studying child and adolescent mental health in the Global North and develop complementing capacities in the Global South. A global trust underpinned by Meta data and informed by experts and stakeholders with diverse lived experiences can tackle the challenges of studying and promoting mental health of young people.

Closing:

Understanding and supporting child and adolescent mental health in the digital age is a bigger challenge than any one person, company, or team can tackle. We believe your platforms have the potential to play an important role in impacting billions of young people for the common good. This global challenge requires a global solution.

We believe Meta can do better and we write to offer our help.

Signatories:

Maria Ãlvarez, Sentido cip, Mexico

Jesper Aagaard, Aarhus University, Denmark

Noon Abdulqadir, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Alberto Acerbi, Brunel University London, United Kingdom

Emily Aguiló-Pérez, West Chester University of PA, USA

Mohamed (Ahmed) Albashir, University of Alberta, Canada

Nicholas Allen, University of Oregon, USA

Meryl Alper, Northeastern University, USA

Azizah alqahtani, Princess Nourah University, Saudi Arabia

Enrique Amestoy, Cooperativa LibreCoop, Uruguay

Christine Anderl, leibniz-institut für wissensmedien, Germany

Theo Araujo, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

José Arce, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentina

Louise Arseneault, King’s College London, United Kingdom

Ruben Arslan, University of Leipzig, Germany

Petr Badura, Placký University Olomouc, Czechia

Nicolas Bagattini, Centro Universitario UNO, Uruguay

Thom Baguley, Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom

Derek E. Baird, BeMe Health, USA

Bert Bakker, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Nick Ballou, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom

Yvette Barraza-Reyes, University of Southern California, United States

Susanne Baumgartner, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Joseph Bayer, The Ohio State University, USA

María Belén Odena, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Vaughan Bell, University College London, United Kingdom

Clément Bergantz, France

Kathleen Beullens, KU Leuven, Belgium

Ine Beyens, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Sunil Bhave, Purdue University, USA

Joël Billieux, Université de Lausanne, Suisse

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Fran Blumberg, Fordham University, USA

Auxane Boch, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Rachael Bond, University of Susex, United Kingdom

Cara Booker, University of Essex, United Kingdom

Hajo Boomgaarden, University of Vienna, Austria

Alberto Borraccino, University of Torino, Italy

Dina Borzekowski, University of Maryland, USA

Susan Branje, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Johannes Breuer, GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany

Matthew Broome, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Olivia Brown, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Moritz Büchi, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Gavin Buckingham, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

Philippe Burger, University of the Free State, South Africa

Katie Burkhouse, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Kay Bussey, Macquarie University, Australia

Álvaro Cabana, Universidad de la República, Uruguay

John Caccavale, National Alliance of Professional Psychology Providers, USA

Daniel Carranza, DATA Uruguay, Ururguay

Arnaud Carre, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France

Mauro Carrero, La tapera invisible, Uruguay

Chris Chambers, Cardiff University, United Kingdom

Jean-Philippe Chaput, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada

Linda Charmaraman, Wellesley College, USA

Ming Chiu, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Drew Cingel, University of California, Davis, USA

Eleanor Clarke, Edge Hill University, United Kingdom

Magdalena Claro, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Heather Cleland Woods, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Michelle Clinch, University of Denver, USA

Bronwyne Coetzee, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Sulamunn Coleman, Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, USA

Avinash Collis, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

Herkulaas Combrink, University of the Free State, South Africa

Ruth S. Contreras Espinosa, University of Vic, Spain

Andrew Coogan, Maynooth University, Ireland

Judi Cook, The College of New Jersey, USA

Hannes Cools, KU Leuven, Belgium

Anne Cordier, Lorraine University, France

Alicia Cork, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Gabriela Cortez, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands

Danielle Cosme, University of Pennsylvania, United States

Alina Cosma, Palacky University Olomouc, Czechia

Jozef Cossey, KU Leuven, Belium

Marc Coutanche, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Wendy Craig, Queen’s University, Canada

Cathy Creswell, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Aaron Cromar, Arizona State University, USA

Donna Cross, University of Western Australia, Australia

Ratko Čuček, Croatia

Ronald Dahl, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Marie Danet, University of Lille, France

Julia Davidson, University of East London, United Kingdom

Max Davie, King’s college london, United Kingdom

Christopher Davis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Pamela Davis-Kean, University of Michigan, United States

Katinka De Wet, University of the Free State, South Africa

Lauren DeLaCruz, Hampton University, USA

Didier Demassosso, Mental Health Innovation Network Africa, Cameroon

Ola Demkowicz, The University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Matthew J. Dennis, TU Eindhoven, Netherlands

Michael Dezuanni, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Leen d’Haenens, KU Leuven, Belgium

Luciana di Lorenzo, Universidad de la república, Uruguay

Tobias Dienlin, University of Vienna, Austria

Felix Dietrich, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Samantha Dockray, University College Cork, Ireland

Michal Dolev-Cohen, Oranim College of Education, Israel

Jo Doley, Victoria University, Australia

Catherine Drane, Curtin University, Australia

Daniel Dunleavy, Florida State University, USA

Spring Duvall, Salem College, USA

Divya Dwivedi, Supreme Court of India, India

Allison Eden, Michigan State University, USA

Edward, University of Malta, Malta

Steven M. Edwards, Temerlin Advertising Institute, Southern Methodist University, USA

Steven Eggermont, KU Leuven, Belgium

Nelly Elias, Ben-Gurion University, Israel

Mai Elshehaly, University of Bradford, United Kingdom

Sven Engesser, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

Walter Ernesto, Analista politico, Uruguay

Paul Evans, University of New South Wales, Australia

Bruno Falissard, Université Paris-Saclay, France

Jasmine Fardouly, University of New South Wales, Australia

Luisa Fassi, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Patricio Feldman, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Aurelio Fernãndez, University of Navarra, Spain

Susana Finquelievich, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Shalom Fisch, MediaKidz Research & Consulting, USA

Jacob Fisher, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA

Paul Fletcher, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Flournoy John Flournoy, Harvard University, United States

Elaine Fox, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Nicola Fox Hamilton, Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT), Dun Laoghaire, Ireland

Eiko Fried, Leiden University,The Netherlands

Jordan Frith, Clemson University, USA

Victoria Gadea, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

Suzanne Gage, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom

Franziska Gaiser, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany

Mateo García, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

Thomas Garnier, 367ppm, France

Amir Gefen, Bar Ilan University, Israel

George Georgiou, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Andrew J. Gerber, Silver Hill Hospital, USA

Irene Gervasio, Uruguay

Alicia Gilbert, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Gary Goldfield, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada

Jon Goldin, Great Ormond Street Hospital, United Kingdom

Isabela Granic, McMaster University, Canada

Jeffrey Greene, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Siobhan Griffin, University of Limerick, Ireland

Nastasia Griffioen, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Matthew Grizzard, The Ohio State University, USA

Gueta Keren Gueta, Bar-ilan University, the Israeli Society of Victimology, Israel

Marco Gui, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

Katie Gunnell, Carleton University, Canada

Alejandro Gutierrez, Activate Care, USA

Cristian Guzman, The Initiative, USA

Lindsay Hahn, University at Buffalo, USA

Mario Haim, University of Leipzig, Germany

Rebecca Hains, Salem State University, USA

Annabell Halfmann, University of Mannheim, Germany

Jessica Hamilton, Rutgers University, USA

Jeff Hancock, Stanford University,USA

Nelli Hankonen, Tampere University, Finland

David Harris, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

Kristen Harrison, University of Michigan, USA

Claire Hawkins, Edge Hill University, United Kingdom

Ellen Helsper, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom

Emma Henderson, University of Surrey, United Kingdom

Jakob Henke, TU Dortmund University, Germany

Hennessy Eilis Hennessy, University College Dublin, Ireland

Vanessa Hernández, DGETP- ANEP, Uruguay

Higgins-D’Alessandro Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro, Fordham University, United States

Martin Hilbert, University of California, Davis, USA

Joanne Hinds, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Mirka Hintsanen, University of Oulu, Finland

Hannah Hobson, University of York, United Kingdom

Celia Hodent, Independent, Ethical Games, USA / France

Alex Holcombe, University of Sydney, Australia

Tom Hollenstein, Queen’s University, Canada

Alex J. Holte, University of North Dakota, USA

Christopher Hughes, Brown University, USA

Simon Hunter, Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom

Richard Huskey, University of California, Davis, USA

Niki Iliadis, The Future Society, USA

Jo Inchley, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Mizuko Ito, University of California, Irvine, USA

Tom Jackson, Centre for Immersive Technologies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Florence Jacob, Nantes University, France

Carrie James, Harvard University,USA

Jeroen Jansz, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Jarman Hannah Jarman, La Trobe University and Deakin University, Australia

David Javet, Université de Lausanne, GameLab UNIL-EPFL, Switzerland

Ana Javornik, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

Michaeline Jensen, University of North Carolina Greensboro, USA

Todd Jensen, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Ana Jorge, Lusófona University, Portugal

Paul Jose, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Rolland Julien, Cocoricodes, France

Lari Kangas, Feelette Oy, Finland

Simon Karg, Aarhus University, Denmark

Veli-Matti Karhulahti, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Kathrin Karsay, KU Leuven, Belgium

Vikki Katz, Rutgers University, USA

Herminder Kaur, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Rogier Kievit, Radboud University Medical Centre, The Netherlands

Kimberly, Eastern Washington University, USA

Kevin King, University of Washington, USA

Grainne Kirwan, Dun Laoghaire IADT, Ireland

Klein Stefanie Klein, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany

Catherine Knibbs, Cybertrauma: University of Salford, United Kingdom

Luka Komidar, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Anne Kouvonen, University of Helsinki, Finland

Peter Koval, University of Melbourne, Australia

Marek Kowalkiewicz, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Rebekka Kreling, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Simon Kruschinski, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany

Anna Sophie Kümpel, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

Pilar Lacasa, University of Alcalá, Spain

Cecile Ladouceur, University of Pittsburgh,USA

Paul Lanier, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States

Matthew Lapierre, University of Arizona, USA

Chad Laux, Purdue University, USA

Tama Leaver, Curtin University, Australia

Nicole Legate, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

Dafna Lemish, Rutgers University, USA

Jovita Leung, University College London, United Kingdom

Neil Lewis, Jr., Cornell University & Weill Cornell Medicine, USA

Andreas Lieberoth, Aarhus University, Denmark

Monika Lind, University of Oregon, USA

Silvina Lindner, Independent, Uruguay

Conor Linehan, University College Cork, Ireland

Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom

Maria Loades, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Maike Luhmann, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

Marianne Lumeau, University of Angers, France

Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Christoph Lutz, BI Norwegian Business School, Norway

William Macallister, University of Calgary, Canada

Rebecca Mace, University College London, United Kingdom

Lucía Magis-Weinberg, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, Perú and México

Silvia Majo-Vazquez, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Arthur J Mariano, University of Miami, USA

Patrick Markey, Villanova University, USA

Martin Rebecca Martin, University of Pennsylvania, United States

Sainz Gabriela Martinez Sainz, University College Dublin, Ireland

Nicole Martins, Indiana University Bloomington, USA

Philipp Masur, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Matthew McAllister, Penn State, USA

Darragh McCashin, Dublin City University, Ireland

Dean McKay, Fordham University, USA

Adrian Meier, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

Cindy Mels, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

André Melzer, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Dar Meshi, Michigan State University, USA

Ewa Międzobrodzka, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Kathryn Mills, University of Oregon, USA

Tijana Milosevic

Deborah Mitchison, Western Sydney University, Australia

Arlen Moller, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

Marthe Möller, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Christian Montag, Ulm University, Germany

Yannick Morvan, Université Paris Nanterre, France

Fatima Mougharbel, University of Ottawa, Canada

Marcus Munafò, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

David Murakami Wood, Director of the Surveillance Studies Centre, Queen’s University at Kingston, Canada

Kou Murayama, University of Tübingen, Germany

David Murphy, University of Plymouth (2019-20 President, British Psychological Society), United Kingdom

Faisal Mushtaq, Centre for Immersive Technologies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Vicki Nash, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Juhani Naskali, University of Turku, Finland

German Neubaum, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

Dominik Neumann, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany

Kwik Ng, University of Eastern Finland, Finland

Nicole O’Donnell ,Virginia Commonwealth University, USA

Manuel Ninaus, University of Innsbruck, Austria

Brittany O’Duffy, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Bram Orobio de Castro, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Félix Ortega, University of Salamanca, Spain

Margarita Panayiotou, University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Yong Jin Park, Howard University, USA

Charles Parry, South African Medical Research Council, South Africa

Ora Peleg, The Academic College Emek Yezreel, Israel

Rolando Pérez, Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica

Dino Pericos, Library of Alexandria, New Zealand

Christina Peter, University of Klagenfurt, Austria

Jochen Peter, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Jennifer Pfeifer, University of Oregon, USA

Jessica Piotrowski, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Lukasz Piwek, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Manuel Podetti, Universidad de la República Uruguay

Loes Pouwels, Radboud University, The Netherlands

Powels Loes Pouwels, Radboud University, The Netherlands

Claudette Pretorius, University College Dublin, Ireland

Ivanka Prichard, Flinders University, Australia

Mitch Prinstein, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Enzo Pulglia, CFE – ANEP, Uruguay

Paul Ramchandani, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Sara Ramos Colmenarejo, London Business School, United Kingdom

Irene Ramos Colmenarejo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Iain Reid, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Erin Reilly, Hofstra University,USA

Leonard Reinecke, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Rivka Ribak, University of Haifa, Israel

Sean Rife, Murray State University, USA

Charlie Rioux, University of Manitoba, Canada

Myrna Rivas, Center for a New Technology, Puerto Rico

Monica River Mindt, Fordham University/Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA

Pablo Rivera-Vargas, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

Hans Rocha IJzerman, Université Grenoble Alpes/Institut Universitaire de France, France

Yannick Rochat, Université de Lausanne, GameLab UNIL-EPFL, Switzerland

Luc Rocher, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Graciela Rodríguez-Milhomens, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

Jonathan Roiser, University College London, United Kingdom

Silvana Melissa Romero Saletti, UCLouvain, Belgium

Lucia Romo, Université Paris Nanterre/ Hôpital Raymond Poincaré (APHP)/Inserm CESP, U1018, France

Rizwana Roomaney, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Sarah Rose, Staffordshire University, United Kingdom

Daniel Rosen, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Rosenbaum Gail Rosenbaum, Geisinger Health System, United States

Andrés Rosenberg, Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile

Rosenfeld Barry Rosenfeld, Fordham University, United States

Amy Roy, Fordham University, USA

Dmitri Rozgonjuk, Ulm University/University of Tartu, Germany/ Estonia

Jeanette Ruiz, University of California, Davis, USA

David Ruttenberg, University College London, United Kingdom

Christian Ryan, University College Cork, Ireland

Melanie Sage, SUNY at Buffalo, USA

Katie Salen Tekinbaş, UC Irvine, USA

Christina Salmivalli, University of Turku, Finland

Inmaculada Sánchez-Queija, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain

Luis E. Santana, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Chile

Kai Sassenberg, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany

Liam Satchell, University of Winchester, United Kingdom

Shubhi Satvik, Earth Trade, India

Damian Scarf, University of Otago, New Zealand

Angelica Schaper, Parent, Spain

Michael Scharkow, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Erica Scharrer, University of Massachusetts, USA

Schmuck Desiree Schmuck, KU Leuven, Belgium

Pascal Schneiders, University of Mainz, Germany

Christina Schnohr, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Susanne Schweizer, University of New South Wales, Australia

Holly Scott, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Flora Seddon, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Alexandra Seddon, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom

Edward Selby, Rutgers University, USA

Benjamin Sharpe, University of Chichester, United Kingdom

Heather Shaw, Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Dame Stephanie Shirley CH, Founding donor, OII, United Kingdom

Felix M. Simon, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Jonathan B. Singer, Loyola University Chicago, USA

Akhilesh Singh, India

Benjamin K. Smith, California State University, East Bay, USA

Vanessa Smith-Castro, University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica

Mark Smyth, Psychological Society of Ireland, Ireland

Leah Sommerville, Harvard University, United States

Edmund Sonuga-Barke, King’s College London, United Kingdom

Inti Spinelli, Instituto Uruguayo de Meteorologìa, Uruguay

Paul Stallard, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Valerie Steeves, University of Ottawa, Canada

Daniel Stegmann, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Colin Steinmann, Open AR Cloud, USA

Chris Ferguson, Stetson University, USA

Jaimee Stuart, Griffith University, Australia

Raphaël Suire, Nantes University, France

Shukla Sumit, Hacking Bharat, India

Theodora Sutton, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Tag Benjamin Tag, University of Melbourne, Australia

Catherine Talbot, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom

Diana Tamir, Princeton University, USA

Wai Yen Tang, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Romina Tarifa, Colegio Profesional de Psicopedagogos de Jujuy, Argentina

Laramie Taylor, University of California, Davis, USA

Bethany Teachman, University of Virginia, USA

Eva Telzer, UNC Chapel Hill, USA

Amanda Third, Young & Resilient Research Centre, Western Sydney University, Australia

Siobhan Thomas, University College Cork, Ireland

Marc Tibber, University College London, United Kingdom

Stephanie Tobin, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

John Toumbourou, Deakin University, Australia

Manos Tsakiris, University of London, United Kingdom

Yalda T. Uhls, Center for Scholars & Storytellers UCLA, United States

Uink Bep Uink, Murdoch University, Australia

Sonja Utz, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany

Patti M. Valkenburg, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Wouter van den Bos, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Mariek Vanden Abeele, Ghent University, Belgium

Laura Vandenbosch, University of Leuven, Belgium

Eric Vanman, University of Queensland, Australia

Stephanie Vanwalleghen, Université Paris Nanterre, France

René Veenstra, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Shruthi Velidi, Independent, USA

Lynette Vernon, Edith Cowan University, Australia

Alexander Voiskounsky, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

Helen Vossen, Utrecht University, Netherlands

Wagstaff Danielle Wagstaff, Federation University Australia, Australia

Rebecca Wald, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Sophie Walsh, Bar Ilan University, Israel

Stuart Watson, Murdoch University, Australia

Andrew Watson, Counsellor in Ottawa, Canada

Rene Weber, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA

Netta Weinstein, University of Reading, United Kingdom

Wer Beatriz MacDonald Wer, Texas Children’s Hospital, United States

Hartmut Wessler, University of Mannheim, Germany

Jelte Wicherts, Tilburg University, Netherlands

Wilhelm Claudia Wilhelm, University of Vienna, Austria

Rebekah Willett, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Mark Wilson, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

Stephan Winter, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany

Lara Wolfers, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Greg Wood, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

Aidan Wright, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Lucas Wright, Cornell University, USA

Philip Wu, Royal Holloway, University of London, United Kingdom

Yager Zali Yager, Body Confident Collective, Australia

Jason Yip, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Bieke Zaman, KU Leuven, Belgium

Emilie Zaslow, Pace University, USA

Rafika Zebdi, Université Paris Nanterre, France

Jamie Zelazny, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Sagit Zilberberg, The Open University Israel, Israel

Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck, Griffith University, Australia

David Zuratzi, Layout-devhr International Game Forum, Mexico

Rolf Zwaan, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands

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